Prosodic Features which Cue bet on-channel Responses in English and Japanese Nigel Ward and Wataru Tsukahara University of capital of Japan biographical Notes Nigel Ward received a Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkeley in 1991. Wataru Tsukahara hopes to receive a Ph.D. from the University of Tokyo in 1999. His thesis research focuses on the construction of a responsive and clarified spoken lyrical system responsive in the sense of taking turns with the uniform swiftness as people, and sensitive in the sense of ad bonnying responses to keen shifts in the users attitude as revealed by his voice timing and prosody. Abstract Back-channel feedback, responses such as uh-uh from a listener, is a permeating feature of parley. It has broad been thought that the production of back channel feedback depends to a large boundary on the actions of the other conversation partner, not just on the volition of the one who produces them. In particular, prosodic moves from the vocaliser adopt long been thought to dissipation a role, but have so far eluded identi?cation. We have forward suggested that an important prosodic cue involved, in both English and Japanese, is a region of base hand over late in an annotation (Ward, 1996).
This paper presents inference for this claim, surveys other factors which elicit or inhibit back-channel responses, discusses issues in the de?nition of back-channel feedback, and mentions a few related phenomena and theory-based issues. *We thank Keikichi Hirose for the pitch tracker, Yuichiro Fukuchi for e?orts to disprove our hypothesis, Daniel Jurafsky, Kikuo Maekawa, Elizabeth Shriberg, Maki Sugimoto, Minoru Terada and anonymous referees for discussion, and our conversants for the data. We withal thank the Japanese Ministry of Education, the beneficial Technology Promotion keister, the Nakayama Foundation, and the Inamori Foundation for support. 1 Introduction By back-channel feedback we mean, approximately, the short utterances produced...If you want to attain a replete essay, ensnare it on our website: Ordercustompaper.com
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